fbpx

What are Platelets and How Do They Contribute to the Immune System?

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small, anucleate cell fragments in the blood, primarily known for their role in hemostasis, the process of blood clot formation to prevent bleeding. However, emerging research has expanded our understanding of platelets, revealing their significant contributions to the immune system. This essay explores the nature of platelets, their traditional roles in hemostasis, and their newly understood functions in immunity, referencing scientific literature to elucidate these aspects.

Platelets originate from megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and are released into the bloodstream as small, disc-shaped fragments. They are anucleate, meaning they lack a nucleus, and have a lifespan of approximately 7-10 days in humans (Harrison et al., 2002). Despite their small size and lack of a nucleus, platelets possess a variety of receptors and signaling molecules that enable them to respond to vascular injury and various immunological signals (Semple et al., 2011).

The primary function of platelets has long been recognized as hemostasis. Upon vascular injury, platelets rapidly accumulate at the site of injury, adhering to the exposed extracellular matrix and to each other, forming a platelet plug. This adhesion is facilitated by von Willebrand factor (vWF) and various adhesion receptors on platelets, such as GPIb (Lopez et al., 2005). Platelets then undergo activation and release granules containing clotting factors and other molecules that promote thrombus formation and vasoconstriction (Blair & Flaumenhaft, 2009).

Platelets can recognize and bind to pathogens directly. They express pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) like Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which enable them to detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (Cognasse et al., 2015). This interaction can lead to the activation of platelets and the release of antimicrobial peptides, contributing to the containment and destruction of pathogens.

Platelets interact with various immune cells, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and dendritic cells. They can modulate the behavior of these cells through direct contact or by releasing cytokines and chemokines. For instance, platelet-derived CD40L can stimulate B cells and dendritic cells, enhancing the adaptive immune response (Elzey et al., 2003).

Platelets are active participants in inflammation. They can adhere to leukocytes and endothelial cells, facilitating the migration of immune cells to sites of infection or injury. Platelets release pro-inflammatory mediators like serotonin and histamine, which enhance vascular permeability and leukocyte recruitment (Semple et al., 2011).

Immunothrombosis refers to the role of coagulation in containing infections. Platelets contribute to this process by forming clots that can trap and isolate pathogens. This function is a double-edged sword; while it helps in localizing infection, it can also contribute to pathological thrombosis if dysregulated (Engelmann & Massberg, 2013).

Platelets are multifaceted components of the blood, essential not only in hemostasis but also in immune functions. Their ability to interact with pathogens, communicate with immune cells, participate in inflammatory processes, and contribute to immunothrombosis highlights their integral role in the immune system. Understanding the full scope of platelet functions in immunity could open new avenues for therapeutic interventions in infectious diseases and immune-related disorders.

References:

Harrison, P., et al. (2002). “Platelet function analysis.” Blood Reviews, 16(3), 143-153.

Semple, J. W., et al. (2011). “Platelets and the immune continuum.” Nature Reviews Immunology, 11(4), 264-274.

Lopez, J. A., et al. (2005). “Platelets and the hemostatic system.” Hematology, 2005(1), 147-154.

Blair, P. & Flaumenhaft, R. (2009). “Platelet alpha-granules: basic biology and clinical correlates.” Blood Reviews, 23(4), 177-189.

Cognasse, F., et al. (2015). “The inflammatory role of platelets via their TLRs and Siglec receptors.” Frontiers in Immunology, 6, 83.

Elzey, B. D., et al. (2003). “Platelet-derived CD154 enables the adaptive immune response.” Immunological Reviews, 194(1), 71-82.

Engelmann, B. & Massberg, S. (2013). “Thrombosis as an intravascular effector of innate immunity.” Nature Reviews Immunology, 13(1), 34-45.

If you have any questions about the Berkeley Formula Diindolylmethane (DIM) Supplement & Immune System Booster, please feel free to contact our customer service department at 877-777-0719 (9AM-5PM M-F PST) and our representatives will be happy to answer any questions that you may have. We will be glad to share with you why the Berkeley Formula is the DIM supplement of choice by nutritional scientists, medical professionals and biomedical investigators worldwide.

Romanesco Broccoli with a Natural Fractal Pattern

Romanesco Broccoli

What are Platelets and How Do They Contribute to the Immune System?

Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small, anucleate cell fragments in the blood, primarily known for their role in hemostasis, the process of blood clot formation to prevent bleeding. However, emerging research has expanded our understanding of platelets, revealing their significant contributions to the immune system. This essay explores the nature of platelets, their traditional roles in hemostasis, and their newly understood functions in immunity, referencing scientific literature to elucidate these aspects.

Platelets originate from megakaryocytes in the bone marrow and are released into the bloodstream as small, disc-shaped fragments. They are anucleate, meaning they lack a nucleus, and have a lifespan of approximately 7-10 days in humans (Harrison et al., 2002). Despite their small size and lack of a nucleus, platelets possess a variety of receptors and signaling molecules that enable them to respond to vascular injury and various immunological signals (Semple et al., 2011).

The primary function of platelets has long been recognized as hemostasis. Upon vascular injury, platelets rapidly accumulate at the site of injury, adhering to the exposed extracellular matrix and to each other, forming a platelet plug. This adhesion is facilitated by von Willebrand factor (vWF) and various adhesion receptors on platelets, such as GPIb (Lopez et al., 2005). Platelets then undergo activation and release granules containing clotting factors and other molecules that promote thrombus formation and vasoconstriction (Blair & Flaumenhaft, 2009).

Platelets can recognize and bind to pathogens directly. They express pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) like Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which enable them to detect pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (Cognasse et al., 2015). This interaction can lead to the activation of platelets and the release of antimicrobial peptides, contributing to the containment and destruction of pathogens.

Platelets interact with various immune cells, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and dendritic cells. They can modulate the behavior of these cells through direct contact or by releasing cytokines and chemokines. For instance, platelet-derived CD40L can stimulate B cells and dendritic cells, enhancing the adaptive immune response (Elzey et al., 2003).

Platelets are active participants in inflammation. They can adhere to leukocytes and endothelial cells, facilitating the migration of immune cells to sites of infection or injury. Platelets release pro-inflammatory mediators like serotonin and histamine, which enhance vascular permeability and leukocyte recruitment (Semple et al., 2011).

Immunothrombosis refers to the role of coagulation in containing infections. Platelets contribute to this process by forming clots that can trap and isolate pathogens. This function is a double-edged sword; while it helps in localizing infection, it can also contribute to pathological thrombosis if dysregulated (Engelmann & Massberg, 2013).

Platelets are multifaceted components of the blood, essential not only in hemostasis but also in immune functions. Their ability to interact with pathogens, communicate with immune cells, participate in inflammatory processes, and contribute to immunothrombosis highlights their integral role in the immune system. Understanding the full scope of platelet functions in immunity could open new avenues for therapeutic interventions in infectious diseases and immune-related disorders.

References:

Harrison, P., et al. (2002). “Platelet function analysis.” Blood Reviews, 16(3), 143-153.

Semple, J. W., et al. (2011). “Platelets and the immune continuum.” Nature Reviews Immunology, 11(4), 264-274.

Lopez, J. A., et al. (2005). “Platelets and the hemostatic system.” Hematology, 2005(1), 147-154.

Blair, P. & Flaumenhaft, R. (2009). “Platelet alpha-granules: basic biology and clinical correlates.” Blood Reviews, 23(4), 177-189.

Cognasse, F., et al. (2015). “The inflammatory role of platelets via their TLRs and Siglec receptors.” Frontiers in Immunology, 6, 83.

Elzey, B. D., et al. (2003). “Platelet-derived CD154 enables the adaptive immune response.” Immunological Reviews, 194(1), 71-82.

Engelmann, B. & Massberg, S. (2013). “Thrombosis as an intravascular effector of innate immunity.” Nature Reviews Immunology, 13(1), 34-45.

If you have any questions about the Berkeley Formula Diindolylmethane (DIM) Supplement & Immune System Booster, please feel free to contact our customer service department at 877-777-0719 (9AM-5PM M-F PST) and our representatives will be happy to answer any questions that you may have. We will be glad to share with you why the Berkeley Formula is the DIM supplement of choice by nutritional scientists, medical professionals and biomedical investigators worldwide.

Romanesco Broccoli with a Natural Fractal Pattern

Romanesco Broccoli
Berkeley Immune Support Formula Immune Booster Supplement
Alex Amini, M.D. Quote

Alex Amini, M.D.
Infectious Disease Specialist
Kaiser Permanente

Broccoli
Broccoli:
Diindolylmethane
Sulforaphane
Selenium
Spinach
Spinach:
Lutein
Zeaxanthin
Citrus Fruits
Citrus Fruits:
Citrus Bioflavonoids
Tomato
Tomato:
Lycopene
Broccoli
Broccoli:
Diindolylmethane
Sulforaphane
Selenium
  • Powerful Nutritional Immune Booster

    Bioavailable Nutrient Delivery System

  • Diindolylmethane (DIM):

    Immune, Breast, Prostate & Colon Heath

  • Sulforaphane:

    Cellular Detoxification

  • Selenium:

    Immune, Breast, Prostate & Vision Health

  • Lycopene:

    Cardiovascular, Breast & Prostate Health

  • Lutein:

    Immune, Vision, Prostate & Skin Health

  • Zeaxanthin:

    Vision Health

  • Vitamin D3:

    Immune Support & Bone Health

  • Citrus Bioflavonoids:

    Immune & Cardiovascular Health

  • Zinc:

    Immune, Breast, Prostate & Vision Health

Berkeley Immune Support Formula supplement facts sheet
Berkeley Immune Support Formula Capsule

Premium Immune Booster